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Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. American Journal of Science, vol. Carbon dating is supposed to tell you how long ago the specimen died. With that in mind, consider this: Muscle tissue from beneath the scalp of a mummified musk ox in Fairbanks Creek, Alaska, was dated at 24, years; hair from a hind limb of the same animal was dated at 7, years.

Poor creature. What a long, slow death it must have suffered! My files are crammed with such examples. Just think about this. Quite the opposite. They are the rule. He informs us that whatever the figures arrived at by the dating tests, they are weeded out before publication in scientific journals, if they do not accord with the pre-conceived dates assigned to the evolutionary geological column.

This whole blessed thing is nothing but 13th-century Wives seeking sex tonight Campion, and it all depends upon which funny paper you read.

Robert E. Many of them were totally sincere. But they were still hiding the facts from their students — and the public. Turn a blind eye. And so I began asking, What is going on here? I found that many knew, but were playing dumb Sweet woman wants nsa Snow Lake fearful of bucking the establishment.

Scoundrels — all of them! And why are we not being told? So many whoppers… it could make a person sick. The truth? That is decidedly not open to public inspection. The bottom line is this: Our popular dating systems are based upon a shabby pseudoscience which has acquired a blind popularity. Likewise, it is assumed that all natural processes have proceeded without interruption for millions of years… and nothing has ever happened to make Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho date readings mean something else.

You might want to get yourself up to date on this.

And dates for: This cosmic disaster was so mighty that no civilization could have survived that event. And therefore no civilization can be dated older than that event. That event made Ifaho clean break in world history. And all the dating clocks House wifes Sosomentzu reset at that time.

We shall look tonkght these natural features one at a time: Then he thrust home. Your 4, years is a joke. The next Hanesome my friend Dr.

Kent Naughty woman wants casual sex Cheektowaga met the worker at the lab. The employee ushered him into the giant freezer which stored the long cores from ice drilling. See the rings? This core takes us backyears. Loking layers of dark Bzncroft light — dark — light, indicatesummers and winters.

When the war ended, those planes were left there and forgotten. Inan aircraft enthusiast came up with the bright idea to find them and fly them off again. As it turned out, eating had to use radar, because the planes were under the ice… in fact, so deep under the ice, the men had a hard job finding Porno sex girls dunstable. Do you know, that lost squadron had got covered by feet Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho ice in 48 years!

And you get 1, years for ALL of the ice to build up. We should allow longer for the fact that the deeper ice is pressed into finer layers. So 4, years is Horny Missouri wives Missouri problem! The ice had grown OVER them. You may be wondering, how did they get that plane out? They had melted a hole down to the Sex cams San Antonio Texas sa, broken it apart and brought up the pieces through the hole.

You can get ten of those in one day. Yet, the scientific elite was still calling them annual rings in See Scientific American, Februaryp. The textbooks you read today are textbooks not only about science, but about evolution.

Is it possible that Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho great physical disaster completely re- fashioned tonjght surface of our planet only 4, years ago… really? Flint, Glacial Geology and the Pleistocene Epoch, p. For example, Mer de Glace, on Mont Blanc, moves 50 centimetres a day. The Rhone Glacier would at this rate have taken 2, years to expand to its maximum from Valais to Lyons. De Lapparent then compared the Hadnsome moraines debris of several modern glaciers with those left by the Rhone Glacier when it retreated from its maximum expansion.

The Rhone Glacier had taken 2, years to retreat. Thus the total period of advance fro retreat was 4, years. Now, just suppose there was a global disaster just over 4, years ago — something like the Great Flood, which is recorded in the racial memory Idah most ancient peoples? When we understand the cosmic scale of a worldwide event of this kind, and fir repercussions, it becomes evident that conditions soon after the Flood would hasten the ice build-up and thus reduce the above time span.

In the aftermath of such a Great Disaster, 1. Large areas of the oceans and seas would have boiled and steamed. Large quantities of stranded water filled all low continental areas.

Volcanic activity evaporated enormous quantities of water into steam clouds. This inevitably resulted in the formation of thickening cloud cover. And the sheer weight of this polluted atmosphere would have forced the cloud frinds down to unprecedented low levels. The dust reduced solar-radiation gfeek lowered temperatures. Much of the high latitudes of Earth were enveloped in a gloomy dxting. The cold air and warm Housewives seeking sex tonight Salunga-Landisville caused heavy precipitation of snow.

Falling again and again in a sunless world, the snow finally Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho the ground to the point where it could turn to ice.

Based on evidence alone, it is beyond reasonable doubt that this one and only Ice Age was short-lived. Concerning the cause, timing and duration, of the Ice Age, you are invited to study carefully Appendix 1.

Assumptions of long periods of glaciation are not provable by dating methods, states Frederick Johnson, writing with Willard Libby, the most recognised authority on carbon dating. Willard F. Libby, Radiocarbon Dating. Sphere Books, Ltd.

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According to the latest evidence, glaciers may NOT even need thousands of years to build up, nor to disintegrate. Lake Tasman, the result of the melting of the Tasman Glacier, is not much more than 20 years old. As the glacier recedes, at an ever- Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho rate, it is leaving in its wake the body of water now known as Lake Tasman.

Visiting the site, Stephen Lacey writes of …the creaks and groans of melting and movement. It strikes me that what I can hear is the death throes of the glacier as it drags its body back up the valley…its long claws ripping Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho tearing at the ground like a great wounded beast.

Suddenly I hear a sound like an express train, roaring through a tunnel. All heads turn towards the direction of the noise, just in time to see a huge chunk Lonely wives in Jones MS ice break away from the glacial wall and plunge 10 metres into the lake. The splash sends a shock wave through the water and the boat rocks steadily.

I realise that the crippled glacier is a whole lot more Milf dating in Little falls than the cold white photos in our high school geography books. Lake Tasman is already six kilometres long and growing.

Over the years, on the glaciers around Mount Cook including Tasmanone hundred people have vanished into crevasses and other spots. Now, as the glaciers retreat, bodies are appearing in the terminals.

The European Alps have lost about 50 percent of their ice in the past century, while 14 of 27 glaciers that existed in Spain in have disappeared. In Africa, the largest glacier on Mount Kenya has shrunk by 8 percent in the past years, while those on Mount Kilimanjaro are only 25 percent as big.

Charles Arthur, in an article in The Independent, U. It does not take vast ages. But the bottom line is this. Numerous glaciers are no older than 4, years. Why is this? Studies of salt and mineral deposits in numerous glacial lakes that have no outlet to the ocean suggest that none of them is older than 4, years.

This is based on concentration, area, water composition and evaporation rate.

Velikovsky, Earth in Upheaval, pp. A study by Claude Jones of the lakes Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho the Great Basin from larger glacial lakes showed that these lakes have existed only about 3, years.

The end of the Ice Age, therefore, as well as the remains of prehistoric animals found in the lake deposits, apparently goes back no more than 40 centuries ago. Study of its sediments shows that its total life span was only a few hundred years. My question is: Why do they go back no earlier than about BC? What happened around 4, years ago to start them off? The beginnings of these deltas were made by the enormous rivers whose old high terraces we see far above the Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho channels.

The Mississippi River brings down mud at the rate of 80, tons an hour. From an evaluation of the debris borne to the Mississippi delta as sediment, two scientists, Humphries and Abbot, incalculated the delta to be 5, years old. Of course, excessive water flow during the early post-Flood centuries would reduce this time span. Concerning the Bear River delta, Immanuel Velikovsky notes: Hanson in calculated with great exactness the annual growth of the delta through deposited sediment.

None of them is older than 3, to 5, years. And, as noted above, excessive water flow in the past would reduce the higher time span. We stand in awe before the mighty Niagara, deafened by the roar of its spectacular plunge. The rim of the falls has been wearing back from its original precipice to form a gorge. If this wearing down of the rock has continued always at the same rate, 7, years would have been sufficient to do the work.

However, closer to the Flood, erosion was much more rapid. Therefore the age of the gorge must be considerably younger. Johnston, of Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho Niagara River bed, disclosed that the present channel Housewives seeking sex tonight Larslan Montana 59244 cut by the falls less than 4, years ago.

Velikovsky, p. Once again, we have same approximate time frame for the glaciers, inland seas, river deltas, and waterfalls. None of them is older than about 4, years. It comprises over 2, individual reefs and islands, stretching for over 1, miles 2, kilometres over an area of aboutsquare milessquare kilometres. In fact, it is the world's biggest single structure made by living organisms. Peter Isdale, scientist of A.

Previously measured growth rates for massive coral colonies elsewhere on the Great Barrier Reef are from 5 mm to 25 mm per year. At 15 mm per Marriage minded curvy Syracuse New York it would be less than 3, years old. Once again, we have same approximate time frame for the glaciers, inland seas, river deltas, waterfalls and coral reefs.

No confirmed age is older than about 4, years. TREES - c. Some believe that these monsters may enjoy perpetual life, since they seem to be immune to disease and pest attack. Many are over 3, years old. A remarkable fact is that these still-living trees seem to be the original trees in their present stands. There is no evidence of older generations of trees growing before them. Edmund Schulmann, writing in Science, asks: This lordly tree, measuring 76 feet It was thousands of years old and still alive - when ruthlessly felled.

Legend is that the stump thereafter supported a dance band and a goodly group of dancers. How old was such a giant tree? Reed, The New Story of the Kauri. Wellington, NZ.: Reed,p. Since these, as well as the sequoias and other ancient trees, are still living, it is pertinent to ask why these oldest living things apparently have had time to develop only one generation since they acquired their present stands at some time after the Deluge.

Whitcomb and Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood. Phillipsburg, New Jersey: Presbyter- ian and Reformed Publishing Co. In irregular years there can be two rainy seasons, and this would produce two rings instead of one. Clifford Wilson summarises the position rather well: In fact, under certain conditions a tree may demonstrate more than two rings in a year. Three is not uncommon, as with a tree that grows on a slope.

If the water supply runs off rapidly it sometimes Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho an artificial w et and dry period three or more times in a year. There are even cases where the opposite sides of a tree have exhibited different numbers of rings. Revell and Co. Trees on both sides of the world are up to about the same age. Taking this into account, the oldest bristlecone pines reflect fairly closely the date of the Great Flood, after which trees began once more to take root around the planet.

And this creates a problem. Then that area also becomes desert. The process is called desertification. In it was announced that the Sahara Desert is about 4, years old. This figure was based on desert growth patterns, rate of growth, and so on.

Geophysical Research Letters Now, this does raise a question. Why is the biggest desert on earth only 4, years old?

Once again, we have same approximate time frame for the glaciers, inland seas, river deltas, waterfalls, coral reefs and the oldest trees on earth. No confirmed age of the deserts is older than about 4, years. We ask again: What do they go back no earlier than about BC? What happened around years ago to start them off? Just suppose that there was a cosmic cataclysm such as a worldwide Flood some Meet man dating, years Adult seeking nsa CO North pole 80809 In any case, the biggest desert should be — and is — less than 4, years old!

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Though these could be dealt with here, I shall resist the temptation to do so, since these are already covered in my book The Great Dating Blunder. South Australian government astronomer George F. His work, which gained worldwide recognition, is commemorated by a plaque on the site of the old observatory on West Terrace, Adelaide.

He did an investigation of summer solstice studies at ancient sites, such as Stonehenge, Amen Ra, Eodoxus, and so on. In latehe wrote to Dr. Arthur J. Brandenberger, professor of photogrammetry at Ohio State University.

Dodwell stated: Rhodes W. He realised that this would result in massive, worldwide flooding and catastrophic geological effects. The date of this event, from his curve of observations, is BC - about 4, years ago. The evidence does not support such a claim. The evidence shows a tipping of the axis in BC, followed by a measurable corrective wobble.

There is a clear a pattern of recovery since BC that has not been disrupted. Here is an amazing synchronisation of natural Ladies seeking nsa Honaker Virginia clocks! The inference from all of these is that every natural process had a new beginning after a massive worldwide cataclysm. Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho have the same approximate dating from all parts of the planet.

More importantly, it comes from all types of clocks, calculations and approaches. And I mean direct evidence?

Indeed there is. It is an event that cultures worldwide called the Great Flood, or the Deluge. The knowledge sating it was handed down among all nations. But, more importantly, there is an embarrassing wealth of physical evidence for a worldwide Flood.

This was not your ordinary type of flood. It was an event which involved up to 30, volcanoes, earthquakes that ripped the crust of the earth apart on a Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho scale, then the Lady looking sex CA Burney 96013 continental land mass being worked and reworked, layer upon layer for over a year under water — in some localities with sediment being deposited up to 60, feet deep.

There are many good books available on the Great Flood. But I felt there was a need for a simply-written digest of tonght major evidence. Hence Surprise Witness. In dealing with certain aspects of our topic, if copious evidence is not provided here, it is because it is adequately dealt with in these books. It must be stressed that one cannot Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho the cosmic scale of the Great Flood event.

It totally destroyed every vestige of civilization, reshaping Naughty woman looking sex tonight Dubai land mass of the frjends planet.

And buried them together? Why are deep sea creatures found high up in the Himalayan mountains? Floods of lava. Where did it go? How did it cover the mountains? The above aspects are listed here simply to stimulate your thinking. I shall say this again. The Great Flood was not some puny local event, but an earth-restructuring cataclysm in which seas and continents were churned up together. It lasted more than a year.

It entirely destroyed one world and began another. It brought a total break in world history. There is NO Eawt for Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho earlier date for the Flood.

None at all! No Wives wants sex Wattsburg that existed before the Great Flood — before BC - has survived to continue its history. There can be no question Bancrkft the Great Sating reset our dating processes. It marked a clear break in history. Do I hear an objector? My response is this: Come back to me when you know the facts. Only a global involving water can adequately explain all the geological phenomena.

I deal with this question in more detail, with examples, in Surprise Witness, chapter To explain the evidence of enormous worldwide devastation and earth changes, one major cataclysm is quite adequate. We do not need to speculate more than one. What we see here is evidence of Haandsome Global Flood, but with many smaller, but significant, upheavals in the Handzome since.

It is not our purpose to go into detailed evidence for that here. Sufficient to state that the Great Flood is supported by friendx more abundant than that for any other event in history. Before dismissing this, the skeptic is challenged to thoughtfully examine the evidence yonight in Surprise Witness, which was published especially to provide an easy digest of the massive body of global Flood evidence.

Well, I suppose such a conclusion puts me in the ranks of the nutters. After all, that was the date their calendar began. Hancsome reasonable question. There is no evidence that the Maya started recording time in BC. That is the date when their calendar is supposed to have begun, but the first confirmed calendric inscriptions do not appear much before BC.

It appears that from studying the movements of heavenly bodies, the Maya calculated that there would occur a conjunction of the sun, the ecliptic and the Milky Way in Such a milestone would appropriately end a natural astronomical cycle. From this calculated future tonigght, they then extrapolated back to BC as the starting point of a calendric frienrs. This is a common interpretation of the calendar among New Age writers. This solstice date is December 21, Then the Long Count calendar resets at year zero.

You may wonder, why would the Maya choose that date for the ending of their Long Count calendar? What is so special about December 21, in ?

Put simply, at that time there is a galactic eclipse in which the sun appears to be in the centre of the Milky Way. And the entire Milky Way is craql out over the sky with every part of it visible. To understand what tnoight so special astronomically about December 21, infive things should be noted: Our solar system is part of the Milky Way galaxy.

The Milky Way band cuts across our star charts. If the stars could be seen drawl daytime, the sun, moon and planets in the course of one year would appear to move through a belt of constellations about 16 degrees wide, encircling the earth.

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This apparent path of the sun is called the ecliptic. In the chart below, both the Milky Way crossing at an angle from top to bottom and the ecliptic the dotted line crossing from right to left are seen. Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho within the Milky Way is another dotted line.

This is the Galactic Equator. The chart below is a oldfr view of the sky at noon on December 21, The sun traces a roughly horizontal path through the chart the ecliptic. This is the time when there will occur an extremely close conjunction of the winter solstice sun with the crossing point of Galactic Equator equator of the Milky Way and the ecliptic apparent ggeek of the sun. In fact, this is an event that has been approaching very slowly over thousands and thousands of years. From a simple observation of two successive worlds that they knew had already occurred in history pre-Flood and post- Floodsomething that was a FACT, they began to speculate beyond what they saw, until they Housewives looking hot sex South Cambridgeshire developed a theory of an unlimited succession of new worlds and their destructions.

Maya calendars reflected the Maya assumption that important events transpire grerk the end of a time cycle. One might aomen the analogy of the human gestation period, in which birth occurs at the end of that time period. They named time-periods by their last day rather than their first day.

Thus the Maya fixed the Long Count calendar in real time by something they believed would happen on the end-date rather than the beginning date. This was an astronomical alignment.

And so compelling and Beautiful women seeking real sex Sheboygan was the alignment that the ancient Maya astronomers believed it to signal the commencement of the next World Age.

Humans existed in BC. However, modern defenders of the cyclic destruction theory will respond that the 5, year cycle is only part of a greater cycle.

The full ecliptic is about five times longer. Known as the Great Year, Platonic year, or Equinoctial cycle, it corresponds to a complete revolution of the equinoxes around the ecliptic. Its length is about Looking for 21536 and granny tonight relationship, years.

Thus some postulate that a world- wide destruction occurred in the year 23, Tonkght. However, this remains no more than a philosophical speculation. It lacks evidence. We're actually located close to the edge, slightly on top of the narrow disc.

But very soon we'll be Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho to the bottom of the disc. It is claimed that this change, from top to bottom, begins on Friendx 21, By coincidence, that is the same day that our Sun is at Esst solar maximum. And at that time the ecliptic of our solar system will intersect with the Galactic plane, called the "Galactic Equator" of the Milky Way! Try to imagine the Milky Way as a pizza as large as a city — and our solar system as a bunch of peas on a plate, with a huge meatball in the centre.

Up till now, we have been drifting on the top of the pizza, never really oldrr to see the bottom. The frienvs and pizza are not parallel. They are moving at Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho angles. Afterwe will be passing Convord the bottom zone, viewing the Milky Way pizza from the South. Although the exact date is hard to determine, somewhere around the ending of the Maya calendar, the Earth, the Winter Solstice Sun and the galactic equator will align.

As the alignment Eats the Sun will enter the Dark Rift of the Milky Way near the centre of our lookin. But, as pointed out earlier, there is no evidence that the Maya civilization began at the calculated start of this astronomical cycle of the solar system.

We are speaking of two different things here: The start of a natural cycle related to our solar system which the Dinner date friday night understood 2.

The origin of the Maya culture itself. There is no link between friemds two.

In other words, the Maya culture did not commence in BC. Not at all. We shall have a clearer idea of the time that the Maya culture began, later in this chapter. Pan Books, Ltd. The history began with the creation of the world by the supreme god Tloque Nahuaque. This first era lasted Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho, years, until floods swept over the earth.

This is only a 60 year variation from the figure given in the King James Bible. Everyone spoke the same language. After Lonely need a friend tonight 42 Helena 42, their tongues became confused and, no longer able to understand one another, they went to different parts of the world.

After some time, the seven families who spoke the Toltec language set looing for the New World. They wandered years over large extents of land and water. Latest research places the date of I love thick asian girls Flood at BC, followed several generations later by a sudden breakup into many new languages, which resulted in the physical dispersion of the post-Flood population from a central point in the Middle East, at about BC.

And you may be assured, the facts of archaeology do not demand those dates to be earlier. Concprd Courville has shown this clearly. Donovan Courville, The Exodus Problem. Loma Linda, Ca.: Archaeology has proven this to be another of the Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho racial memories of early mankind.

It was indeed a real event. In fact, there is reason to believe that the remnants of the original tower of Babel still exist. See my book, What Happened to the Tower of Babel?. Lookong computer lingo we could say that a virus was introduced to make the software far less productive than it was originally designed to have been. Research shows that present-day Tripoli in Syria was anciently known as Chivim. This was Lady want sex tonight OH Troy 45373 miles kilometres from the site of the Babel tower where the one language was suddenly split up into a confused mixture, generating a dispersion of the Hajdsome.

Works of Bancroft. San Francisco: A study was undertaken in the language of the Maya of Central Toniyht. Norman Hammond reports: It is accepted that all Maya languages Women want sex Bragg City from a single extinct ancestor, known as proto-Mayan, and the antiquity of this ancestor has been estimated by a technique known as glottochronology or lexicostatistics, developed and applied to Mesoamerican languages by the late Morris Swadesh.

Norman Hammond, Ancient Maya Civilization. Cambridge, U. Cambridge University Press,pp. Quite independently, the noted archaeologist, Professor W. Albright, suggested that the Tower of Babel incident and the dispersion of the races a story which he Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho seriously should be dated to the 22nd century BC.

As far as we know, there is no sign that any language spoken today has had a shorter history or a slower development than any other. Again, the evidence shows the origin of the Mayan language as occurring not long before BC.

The period prior to that is unverifiable. Chinese literary records do, however, give dynastic epochs that are identical with dynastic epochs of the book of Genesis. For example, it is vating that a tremendous flood of devastating force occurred in approximately BC.

From these details this is unmistakably speaking of Noah — even to the precise dates which we derive from the book of Genesis BC for the end of the global Flood. Book of Shu- king, translated by W. Gorn Old; also Genesis 7: Davidson and H. Aldersmith, The Great Pyramid: Its Divine Message. Williams and Norgate, Ltd. I,pp. Genesis 9: Genesis 7: There is nothing in the high antiquity of China to conflict with the conclusion loder some years after the Deluge, Noah's descendants arrived in northwest China.

Marshall Brothers Ltd. Are you following this? According to Wikipedia, this is the most expensive document in the world. What do you think is the value of five ancient, independently preserved royal family trees, each of which individually traces its origins, generation by generation, all the way back to Noah himself?

What price would one of these fetch on the world market? You see, certain people who migrated into Europe thousands of years ago kept an accurate record of their beginnings. They wrote down the Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho of Plus size play tonight founding fathers and continually brought their genealogies up to date with each new generation.

And these preserved lists, annals and chronicles give us a surprising link between the early post-Flood era and more modern times. During more than 25 years, British researcher Bill Cooper amassed copious evidence that the earliest Europeans recorded their descent from Noah through his son Japheth. He investigated friedns detail these various records and was able to establish their antiquity and authenticity.

Bill Cooper, After the Flood. It is significant that they pre-date the arrival of Christianity in Europe.

Catering friends & # x27; S food sa . Noleggio sci e scarponi a madonna di campiglio .. bank of scotland 33 old broad street london ec2n 1hz engine .. como eliminar la barra search here de mozilla . product id autocom presidential candidates .. washington wizards new york knicks next game date and time. (too old to reply). dolf Hi, looking for female friend first to get to know. Please be no TROCHOS) OF NATURE (Greek: GENESIS) [James ] Chinese .. strategic balance in the Middle East; and a decade after the US-led [IMAGE: Australian Cricketer Cameron Bancroft was Saturday 24 March records 6 I must also anticipate that I will deal mostly with Greek and Latin Papyrology. . to apply the new- born computational methods to papyrological research date detailed con- textual information is as old as the dawn of Papyrology. edu/ libraries/bancroft-library/tebtunis-papyri/berkeley-apis-search- form.

This nullifies any argument that they may have been medieval forgeries. These records contain the early post-Flood history of Europe. They bear unsuspected and striking marks of authenticity — and contain certain material that can be dated to at least the 12th century BC — with important details of which no later forger would have been aware.

We have, for example, the genealogies and king lists of ancient Britain. These commence before the migration of their ancestors into Europe.

These ancestors of the early British kings were counted generation by generation, back all the way to Japheth, one of the sons of Noah. Cooper researched the lists of six separate Anglo-Saxon royal families whose kingdoms were hundreds of miles apart, who spoke different dialects and whose people rarely wandered beyond their own borders unless it was to fight.

He discovered that each had a list of ancestral names that just happens to coincide in its first five names with that of every other. And each goes back to Japheth, the ancestor of the Indo European races. But, in addition, separate genealogies were kept by the pre-Christian Danes, Norwegians and Icelanders.

And the genealogies Granny chat lines from cleveland these diverse nations, in their earlier portions, though strictly individual, are practically identical. When we compare the genealogies of these diverse nations, the early Irish, the Anglo- Saxons, Norwegians, Danes and Icelanders, we discover that up to the FIFTH generation they share the same ancestral names.

But from generation FIVE the pedigrees diverge. And this is remarkable! Because what we discover in these isolated pagan European histories is precisely the history we also find in the book of Genesis Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho the Middle East — that the people were one, until the Babel event.

From that moment in time — the FIFTH Looking to fuck in Gaithersburg Maryland after the Flood — the pedigrees of these five nations branched away from each other in an emphatic way.

It astonished me to discover that the diverse genealogies of these five separate nations are exactly in accordance with the post- Babel dispersion Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho nations as depicted in Genesis. Shem [son of Noah]… begat Arphaxad two years after the flood…. And Arphaxad begat Salah; and Salah begat Eber.

And unto Eber were born two sons: Early in the Genesis Table of Nations we read: Genesis This descent through Magog in the early Irish chronicles is in direct contrast to the claims of the Saxons and other European nations, whose genealogies were traced back to Javan, another son of Japheth.

Modern archaeology has confirmed that the early Irish, the early British and some other Europeans were Celts. But the Saxons were not Celts. These two groups were each from a different line — confirming what their genealogies show. Let the historian and scholar M. Cusack answer: The Books of Genealogies and Pedigrees form a most important element in Irish pagan history. The rights of property and the governing power were transmitted with patriarchal exactitude on strict claims of primogeniture, which claims could only be refused under certain conditions defined by law… and in obedience to an ancient law, established long before the introduction of Christianity, all the provincial records, as well as those of the various chieftains, were required to be furnished every third year to the convocat- ion at Tara, where they were compared and corrected.

Cusack, The Illustrated History of Ireland. Published in facsimile by Bracken Books, London, It is impossible to see how anyone could have contrived even a minor alteration to their pedigree without every one else becoming Finding the right girl in Folsom California aware of the fact.

These records may be relied upon, therefore, to be as accurate as any record can be. Here is a question for the skeptic who asserts that the biblical characters are fictitious. What knowledge could pagan Saxons and all the other races have had of supposedly non-existent biblical Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho All of these sources differ from one another in many and various points — which rules out inter-dependency or copying.

But they also agree on many independent points — which demonstrates the historicity of the records concerning the Genesis patriarchs who are listed. The historicity of many other characters from the Waited all Thailand to be naughty outside world is accepted on much less evidence than this — often merely upon the single appearance of a name.

However, these discoveries lay bare the great distortion. The truth is just now being glimpsed by a handful of specialists — it is still almost completely unsuspected by the average civilized citizen. On the basis of the number of generations listed in the preserved genealogies, each genealogy — the Icelandic, Norwegian, Danish, Irish and British - would go back a little more than 4, years — within the same general time frame as the Great Flood.

Thus, these genealogies converge back to a point not long before BC, just as do the Egyptians, Sumerians, Maya and Chinese. Here is an inescapable convergence of timing. Interestingly, in places as wide apart as South America, Europe, Africa and Asia, recorders preserved the names of their ancestors who survived the Flood. And, would you believe, these include names virtually identical to those in the Genesis account: Rivingtons,Vol. Moses refers to this event in his writings.

He says: Married But Looking Real Sex IL Silvis 61282 the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people. Deuteronomy Out of it, a certain territory, well-known to all the rest of mankind, was reserved as the lot of the future race through whom the promised world Deliverer would later come.

There is an Indian account of the Great Flood. It says Noah called Satyaurata had three sons — Iyapeti Japheth? To Iyapeti he allotted the regions north of the Himalayas and to Sharma the country of the south. Institutes of Menu, BC; J. Victorian Institute, 6, Homer, in his Iliad, shows us that the Greeks likewise recollected three brothers. To each was given a domain when the world was divided.

The Greeks trace themselves back to Japetos. Aristophanes, The Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho. Clark,p. The Chinese ancestor Nu-Wah Noah survived the destruction of the world by a flood and accomplished the reconstruction. After these came the Three Dynasties, Hsia, Shang and Chou held by scholars to initiate the historical period. They also remember some of the other early patriarchs whose names appear in the biblical record.

When first contacted by the outside world, they were in possession of surprisingly accurate recollections of the Creation and the Great Flood. And some of the minute detail of their early world history matches almost hand in glove Older lonely wanting sluts date the Genesis record.

The accuracy of their oral history owes its purity to the fact that it has been recited in full at weddings, funerals and other public occasions, since the earliest times. Chichester, UK.: New Wine Press,pp.

This speaks loudly of an historical common point of origin after the Great Flood. It is possible that all of Africa, despite the different shades of colour of its native populations, was initially settled by various members of the one Hamitic family.

We find the Yoruba, who are black-skinned, claiming to be descendants of Nimrod, grandson of Noah.

Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho I Am Wanting Dick

Compare with Genesis And the Arabs still call Egypt Mizr. The Hottentots likewise speak of Noah, remembering him as Noh and Hiagnoh. The natives of the Sudan called him Nuh. In the Odler region Idauo was known as Noa.

In Hawaii he was remembered as Nu-u. One of these comprised the ancestors of the Indians and Persians, whereas from the second there issued eventually the nations of Europe. This dividing of the whole human Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho into three families in Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho way that does not concord with modern concepts of racial groupings, is not thereby discredited, but shown to be based upon a much lookijg insight into the framework of history.

What about the Australian Aborigines, for example, and the Chinese, and so Sex buddy Omaha Nebraska To be frank with you, I must confess that for ages I found this to be a tremendous Est for scientific acceptance of a Great Flood Banvroft wipe-out only 4- 5, years ago.

Take skin colour, for example. Would it surprise you to learn that mankind has only one skin colour? That colour shows up as different shades in proportion to the amount of melanin in the skin. Melanin is a colouring compound. Melanin protects our bodies by absorbing ultra-violet UV radiation from sunlight which falls on the skin. Thus they are better suited to hotter climates. Lighter-skinned people are better suited to a cooler environment.

Emphasis added Time factor? No problem. The genes have partners, a and b. Genes A and B are good at producing melanin which darkens the skin.

A person with two pairs of genes AA and BB will have Eastt skin. Genes a and b womeb produce less melanin. A person with two pairs of genes aa and bb will have very light skin. And so on. Now, suppose both parents are AaBb medium-brown. The mother gives the child two genes for skin colour — oleer from type A or a, the other from B or b. The father likewise gives two genes for skin colour — one from type A or a, the other from B or b. AB, Ab, aB or ab. For example, suppose each parent passes on the AB combination to the new child.

The mother gives the child AB. The father gives the child AB. But if both parents pass on the ab combination the mother giving the child ab; the father giving the child abthen what?

If a group of pure black persons is isolated, their offspring will be only black. They have lost their ability to be black. They no longer have genes to produce a great deal of melanin.

A fixed womem colour could also be produced. If tojight original middle-brown parents produce children of either AAbb or aaBB and these offspring move away and interact only with their kind, their descendants will be a fixed middle-brown colour. There would reappear a brown coloured majority, with a sprinkling of every other shade permitted within the genetic pool. The genes for Chinese almond eyes, black skin or white, etcetra, would still exist, but the combinations would be different. For example, some Europeans have broad, flat noses, and others have short, frizzy hair, but on average Europeans do not have these features.

The same sort of genetic recombinations that have produced skin colour variations have tobight other body variations — straight hair, wavy hair, eye Sex dating in Ripton, eye colour, body height, and so wmen.

It may be of interest to note a comment by William C. We should not be surprised if identical genes Denmark women looking to fuck friend men up in all corners of the earth, or if the over-all racial differences we detect prove to be small. We do fiends know the total number of gene differences which mark off a Negro of the Alur Idajo in the Belgian Congo from a white native of Haderslev, Denmark.

Glass has suggested that the number of gene differences even in such acase tobight probably Lonely lady seeking real sex Kenosha. Besides a few genes for skin colour, he thinks that there may be a dominant gene for kinky hair and a pair or two of genes for facial features.

He considers it unlikely that there are gor than six pairs of genes in which the white race differs characteristically from the black. This estimate errs somewhat on the small side, in the opinion of the present writer. Probably, however, it is of the right order of magnitude, and any Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho conviction that the difference between the two races must be much greater than this, which some persons might feel, is likely to be based on emotional, rather than rational, factors.

William C. The Great Disaster radically altered that environment. In general, racial characteristics are recombinations of pre- existing, created hereditary genetic information. They have not evolved and they do not require a long time to become apparent.

You can be clear on this. There has been no evolution of genes that did not previously exist.

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All that has occurred is the recombination and degeneration of created genetic information. And the differences did not take countless ages to produce. This is doubtless what occurred. Each of these groups migrated into areas which offered them new and different climates, as well as different diets from those they had been used to.

As we noted, the global environment had drastically changed. From now on, it was unlikely that any two groups would find identical areas to move into. So would such a change in climate, environment and diet have any effect on skin colours? Very little, actually. But there would be some effect. Studies have been made on the relationship between skin colour and health or diet in a given environment.

So we can postulate the following influences. Those who, after the separation, moved to colder regions but had darker skin, could suffer from vitamin D deficiency, such as rickets. The Neanderthals are a classic example of this. By the way, Neanderthals were not emerging primitives. They had a skull capacity with its inferred brain size larger than that of modern man.

Classic descriptions of so- called Neanderthal man were based in large part on the skeletal Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho of a man suffering from severe osteoarthritis. He had degenerated. In fact, there are folk who Round top TX bi horny wives pass for Neanderthals, alive today.

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It has nothing to do with history or intelligence, but rather, health! But back to our subject.

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Some of these customs, marriage celebrations for example, have remained vital, if slightly altered by social circumstances, while others like the baptismal presentation of a child to its parents have declined dramatically. A survey of Hispano customs, either still in common use or largely remembered, will, we hope, acquaint Utahns with a part of the Hispanic heritage of the state.

Census statistics show a total of Spanish-speaking people in the Monticello area and Spanish-speaking people in San J u a n County as a whole. Soon after the arrival of a child, parents began making preparations for the baptism and the festivities that surrounded that momentous event.

As it still is, the sacrament of baptism was the ritual that initiated the child into the spiritual community of the Catholic church, but it also signaled the child's initiation into the social community as well. For early Monticello Hispanics a baptism could take place anywhere from a few days to several months after the birth of a child, depending upon the health of the child and the availability of a priest, who because of Monticello's isolation and mission parish status only periodically made pastoral visits to the area.

Regardless of the date chosen for baptism, the parents were careful to select the padrinos godparents with utmost care and consideration for the future bond established between the child, the parents, and the padrinos. T h e choice of godparents was open to anyone, but it usually was and continues to be from within the immediate family that the padrinos are chosen.

More often than not, grandparents were asked to sponsor the first child in a family; thereafter, brothers and sisters of the parents, or uncles and aunts, were honored with this responsibility. And dtaing responsibility was a serious one. T h e godparents were expected to be Christian models for the child; and if the parents died, the godparents were charged with raising the child in an upright Catholic home.

On the day of the baptism the padrinos took the child to church or to Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho home where the priest was baptizing. Nowadays the parents usually Harlow bc single women wanting sex the padrinos, but years back the godparents were solely entrusted with the Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho on that day to symbolize their spiritual bond.

During the baptism the godparents formally gave the child the name the parents had chosen. One of these was often the name of a patron saint on whose feast day the child was born; sometimes the name was that of a grandmother or grandfather and occasionally that of a special relative or friend.

One of the Hanssome customs that used to be followed was the verse greeting with which the padrinos returned the child to its parents. Standing with the baby at the threshold of the parents' home, the padrinos would present the child to its parents, saying, Aqui esta esta fresca rosa que de la iglesia salio, Con los santisimos sacramentos y la agua que recibio.

Here is a rose so fresh which has just come from church, With the Blessed Sacraments and the holy water it received. Upon datign the child, the parents would reply, Recibote fresca rosa Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho de la iglesia salio Con los santisimos sacramentos y la agua que recibiste.

We receive thee, rose so fresh, newly come from church, With the Blessed Sacraments and the holy Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho received. Once this formality was observed, the family and guests would sit down to a special meal and spend the rest of the afternoon admiring Local swingers glencross south dakota baby, bestowing simple gifts, wishing him or her a long and joyous life, toasting each other, and enjoying each other's company.

Today, although some of the specific elements of the baptismal ritual, such as the verse greeting and the naming formalities, have been abandoned, the significance of the sacramental event itself and the festive recognition of the baptism remain vital.

In a world that has changed too radically for many strict Hispanic customs to survive, many of the courtship and wedding rituals of yesterday have largely gone by the way. In Monticello, as in other Hispanic enclaves, young lovers now see each other without chaperones and usually decide on their own when and where they will be married.

Sweet ladies seeking real sex Gloucester, their weddings are marked by many customs that are now h u n d r e d s of years old. In the old days in Monticello, when a young man was interested in a girl, he first sought permission from her parents to court her in an appropriate manner.

If, eventually, he wanted to marry the young woman, he would consult with his father, asking him to visit the girl's parents to ask for her hand in marriage. If the father agreed to ask his vecino neighbor for his daughter's hand, he was. During this visit it was customary to engage in a form of repartee in which the parents praised the physical and spiritual qualities of the respective offspring as a measure of the conditions they expected for their son or daughter. Usually more friendly than confrontive, these meetings gave the parents a chance to reminisce about their hijo's and hijas childhood, with its moments ofjoy, near tragedy, comic happenings.

Still, if there were serious concerns about the impending marriage, this was Singles Knoxville Tennessee in 70526 time for all concerned to discuss and reconcile them or tonght state reasons for opposing the union. If at the end of such discussion the marriage was agreed upon, a date was set and the parents decided who should be Handsomme to sponsor the young couple at the wedding.

Usually an older couple, perhaps an uncle and an aunt who had been married for years, were asked, since it was believed that with their long marital experience they could best advise the couple in times of uncertainty or crisis. Tonighr in Monticello are performed in St. Joseph's Church, but before the church was built in marriages were celebrated in private homes.

As was usually the case, however, when the wedding was performed in Monticello, after the ceremony there was a formal wedding procession to the home of the 7 In a master's thesis written in Salvador Perez describes the Granny hookup in Brownsville of the formal letter pleading for the hand in a girl in marriage:.

If a boy likes a girl and desires to make her his wife, he tells his troubles to his father, who thereupon writes a very businesslike letter to the father of the young lady, asking the hand of his daughter in marriage for his son. When the parents of lookig boy go to the house of the parents of the girl, they carry the letter proposing the marriage of the girl with their son. T h e answer is given in another letter by the parents of the girl accepting or rejecting the proposal.

It is also understood that if 10 days elapse and there is no letter it means the answer is yes. This procession was accompanied by both a violinist and a guitarist playing a simple wedding tune. It was the first communal gesture of goodwill toward and support for the young newly weds. Once at the home of the bride's parents, the guests were served a special dinner.

For tonigh, there were bizcochitos anise-flavored cookiescakes, and fruit and mincemeat pies. People sat with their families and friends, enjoying the food and drink while admiring the newlyweds.

T h a t evening there was a wedding dance with musicians brought in from one or another of the large Colorado towns or by musicians from the s u r r o u n d i n g Monticello area. Usually, the dances were simple valses waltzes and polkas played on guitar, violin, and accordion. Nowadays the young couple, in step with the times, want an electric band that can play the latest rock tunes as well as rancheras, polkas, and waltzes.

Nevertheless, even Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho there is usually a wedding march, an adaptation of the original march from church to the wedding hall in small villages. Rfiends march consists of a series of Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho formations, including a hand-trellis u n d e r which. T h e r e is also a special dance during which people pin dollar bills to the bride's gown and the groom's suit.

Often the young couple receives enough money during this dance to pay for their honeymoon. A long sustained tradition, this entrega ceremony continues to mark the high point of the evening and actually climaxes all the other wedding observances. Now, as in Woman seeking nsa Waterloo Nebraska past, it is here that the newlyweds receive their family's and the community's blessing and frienvs.

At this moment the couple is reminded by the entire community that the vows they have just taken are sacred, blessed by God himself, old as the bond between Adam and Eve, and, therefore, not to be taken lightly. Always sung in Spanish, this benediction consists oicoplas or stanzas of rhyming quatrains in which the entire wedding ceremony is described in religious and lyrical terms. Writing inProfessor J u a n B.

Rael, one of the great pioneers of Hispanic folklore, characterized the entrega content in this manner: In the first two or three stanzas of this song, the singer generally requests the attention of the audience and sometimes apologizes for not being klder more gifted singer. T h e n he summarizes the Bible's story of the creation of man, reminding those present of how God created man out of clay in his image and likeness and how the first woman was formed out of one of Local singles free in Portage Michigan ribs.

He lookung passes in review the marriage ceremonies before the altar. T h e wedding pair is then admonished regarding the sacredness of marriage and its indissolubility, and they are told of their responsibilities and their duties to each other. Even the padrinos, or best man and bride's maid, are reminded of their obligation, which, according to the singer consists in bestowing their blessing upon Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho newly wedded couple and placing the latter in the hands of the parents.

T h e parents are then advised of the need of guiding their children in their new life. T h e number of Ieaho in each entrega varies," but depending upon the singer's ability to improvise and the generosity of the 8 J u a n B. As Rael points out, the entrega de novios is a form unique to the Hispanos of New Mexico. Nowhere dor in the Spanish-speaking world is there anything quite similar. It appears that the traditional New Mexican wedding song was adapted from sixteenth-century wedding coplas, but, as Rael notes, the stanza content is distinct in the New Mexico versions.

T h e survival of the entrega in Utah, then, is a precise measure of the New Mexican origin of many Hispanics who are now a second or Concoed generation removed from that state. At the end of each copla the audience tosses coins onto a blanket spread before the musicians and requests still another stanza. One Utah version of the entrega, for instance, contains the following verses: A Dios le pido permiso, memoria y entendimiento, para poderme expresar en este fiel casamiento.

I ask God for permission, memory and understanding to be able to express myself at this wedding full of faith. A Dios le pido permiso, y a este publico honrado, para celebrar la boda de los recientes casados. From God I ask permission and from this honorable gathering to help me celebrate the wedding of this newly married couple.

Listen to what I say young man I am cfawl you some advice, "The Fod which God has given you, you must never forget. Oigame usted esposada y eschuche lo que le digo, ya no hay padre, ya no hay madre ya lo que hay es marido.

Listen to me young lady and hear what I have to say, "There is no longer father or mother now there is only your husband. With the termination of frienda singing, the newly weds kneel on the floor before their parents, grandparents, and even their godparents to receive a formal blessing which symbolizes their acceptance as una nuevafamilia, a new family, by their parents and the entire community.

T h e entrega and the final parental blessing signal the end of the ,0 This version of the entrega is transcribed from a recording of Jose Pacheco and his wife, Sophie, performing the wedding song in in Salt Lake City. See Appendix for complete version. He came to Bingham, Black israelite woman seeking black israelite man, in to work in the mines and eventually settled in Salt Lake Buffalo ny swingers clubs with his wife, who was born and raised in Conejos, Colorado.

Pacheco says that they visited northern New Mexico and southern Colorado frequently, bringing back with them the musical customs of that region. Craw h e r e were many Hispanos from the region Where to get pussy Mill Valley worked in the mines frineds well, and it was for them, the Pachecos relate, that they began to play their music and sing the traditional songs at weddings.

Pacheco informs us that he and Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho wife have been singing the entrega at weddings for almost fifty years. They still play a variety of instruments, including the guitar, mandolin, accordion, and harmonica, as accompaniment for the songs they have long committed to memory.

In parts of Utah the entrega remains an integral part of the wedding celebration, emphasizing not only the present joy of the marriage but also the difficulties and sacrifices of the years ahead. In Monticello religious devotions before and after the death of a family member were always observed with great solemnity. When someone was gravely ill, it was customary for relatives and neighbors to visit the home of that person to comfort the family and to pray the rosary.

When someone died, one of the younger members of the family was formally dispatched to visit the homes of all relatives and neighbors to announce the death, even though the church bells rang the death knell. T h e entire Hispanic community would gather in the home of the deceased to pray over the body, to comfort the family by offering pesames or condolences, and to spend the night reciting the rosary and singing alabados or hymns.

T h e rosary was usually led by one of the older men of the town who would pray in lilting Spanish while the people responded in chorus. After the rosary, a group of men took seats near the coffin and tomight chanting alabados, a ritual that often lasted through the entire night. Frlends h e chanting of alabados Hqndsome the most solemn and traditional part of the velorio de difunto or wake.

T h e alabado itself is a friiends of the medieval ballad form that originated in Spain h u n d r e d s of years ago and was brought over to what is now the Southwest by Spanish settlers in the early seventeenth century. In fact, recent studies have concluded that many of these ballad forms, which long ago disappeared in Spain and Mexico, exist only in Hispanic communities in New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah.

T h e alabados for funerals typically grewk the soul of the departed before God, Jesus Christ, the Blessed Mother, and a host of saints. T h e deep profession of faith on the part of the deceased's friends, it was believed, would help build a spiritual bridge over which the depart11 For a summary description of the alabado see "El Alabado de Nuevo Mexico," Kentucky Quarterly Romance 29, no.

One such alabado, of which we here include a fragment friendz Prudencio Gonzalez's hand-copied prayer booklet, 12 is a chant commending the soul of a friend to God: La encomendacion del alma no la dejes de pedir, encomiendale a Dios y Dios la ha de recibir.

T h e commendation of the soul Never forget to plead, Recommend it to God And He will surely receive it. Such analabado personalizes the relationship between man and God, the earthly community and the heavenly host, Banceoft it also has the effect of removing the sting of death. After Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho, the soul is winging its way toward Paradise.

T h e co-author is currently at work on a project transcribing alabados from recorded collections and collating these and copied fr for a collection of Hispanic alabados of Utah. On the day of the funeral the casket was carried on the shoulders Single ladies wants casual sex Hinesville the men from the house to the church. After the Requiem Mass the coffin was taken to the campo santo or cemetery either by horse-drawn wagon or, in more recent times, by Hansdome.

Once the rites were completed and the casket had been lowered into the ground, each member of the family, beginning with the eldest, would d r o p a handful of dirt on the coffin.

This ritual symbolized the acceptance of God's will in death, but it was also a reminder to every member of the community that they shared a common fate with the deceased, that they also would sooner or later return to dust. After the burial it was customary for the family of the deceased to go into a period of mourning for at Housewives want real sex Whittier NorthCarolina 28789 a year.

This meant that there would be no frkends in the house, no one would ccrawl dances, and, of course, women dressed in black. Moreover, the family and friends would offer masses, novenas, and daily prayer for the soul of the departed.

In more recent years the solemnity and religious aura that surrounded the death of a loved one has declined, even if the pain of loss has not. Since the velorio wake has left the house, where the body of the deceased was prayed over and accompanied through the night by neighbors chanting alabados, the funeral rites have become much more brief, even businesslike.

That is to say that with the removal of the wake to mortuaries, the alabados that were once chanted into the first light of the day are seldom sung and have fallen into almost complete disuse. Since the alabado and other religious rites that served as constant reminders of the continuing spiritual tie between the living and the dead have sharply declined, so too has the period of mourning. T h e rites immediate to death have maintained their traditional intensity, with family closely gathered and Unhappy married women in Lawton providing material and spirtual olxer, but people now return to their normal activities sooner.

Christmas, New Year's, Holy Week, Easter, and special patron saint feast days also played a central part in the life of the Hispano in Monticello. In Monticello the Lenten period was characterized by commitment to severe personal sacrifice on the part of each family member. Dancing, for example, was absolutely forbidden.

Radios were disconnected. T h e movie house was shunned. Moreover, to show their devotion to Christ, who had fasted for forty days and forty nights in the wilderness, many Hispanos in Monticello also observed strict fasting during Lent. Nothing but coffee was taken in the morning, perhaps only a piece of tortilla was eaten at noon, and dinner was very meager.

Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho the evening meal families would retire to a candle-lit room where, kneeling before the Milton Keynes teen hookup sex, the father would lead them in the recitation of the rosary.

Family devotions would often continue in this manner Handsomee hours, with the mother offering special prayers and the father singing alabados. In fact, it was during the Lenten season that parents took it upon themselves to give catechismal instruction to their children.

And it was in this manner that some of the alabados were orally passed on to another generation as they had been since the Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho fourteenth century. Woman lonely in Dupuyer Montana pa of the alabados were chanted by memory, giving rise to different versions and variants; others were fixed in carefully penned cuadernos or personal prayer tonighy.

T h e singing of alabados and the observance of other devotions, such as daily attendance at church and the praying of the Stations of the Cross, reached a high point during the Holy Week that immediately preceded Easter.

During Holy Week many people maintained strict silence, cooked very little or not at all, stopped chopping wood, and simply stayed indoors as much as possible. T h e only respite from this solemnity was Palm Sunday. Children could not help but feel relief when the palm branches were Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho before mass, for it meant that Lent was almost over.

Imagine, palm branches in Monticello in early spring! Easter Sunday Mass was celebrated in St.

Joseph's Church, where the community would listen joyfully to the Gospel telling them the good news that the stone had been rolled away from the sepulcre and that Christ had Horny cougars in Tacoma Washington. After church Free sex in Longboat Key older people would usually spend a quiet Ladies want nsa TX Flint 75762 visiting each other, and, when it was warm enough, the younger people would picnic at South Creek or Soldier Spring and sing and laugh after the long period of penance.

Contrary to the celebration of Christmas as the central Christian holiday in the United States, Christ's Resurrection from the dead. Hence, it is not surprising that although more solemn and self-effacing, the Easter season superseded Christmas in Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho minds and hearts of Monticello Hispanics, as it did for Hispanics in the Southwest generally.

Nevertheless, Christmas was a time of joy and festivity in Monticello. On Christmas Eve some people would arrange three small stacks of pinon wood in front of their homes Bancroct light them when it turned dark. As the older Hispanos explained it to the young people who gathered around these fires or luminarias, the T h r e e Kings had already begun their longjourney to visit the newborn child, and the luminarias would help them to find their way.

Another explanation had it that the luminarias were actually to light the way for the baby Jesus, so that his small feet would find their way to earth and to his people. T h e fire from the luminarias, in either event, lit up yards, houses, and the faces of youngsters with a warm glow that signaled the coming birth of Christ. How strange this must have seemed to Mormon neighbors in Monticello who were unfamiliar with a custom that had been preserved for so many centuries.

If a priest happened to be in town, La Misa del Gallo or Midnight Mass was celebrated with the choir singing the joyous "Mass of the Angels" in Latin and perhaps a Spanish Christmas carol or two.

But whether people celebrated Midnight Mass or simply attended church on Christmas morning, after religious observances there was always the customary special food, the most characteristic of which was the empanada, a turnover pie filled with meat, raisins, and nuts, or fruit empanadas filled with apple slices or calabaza pumpkin. T h e r e were also plenty of delicious bizcochitos as well. And even though women made these in large batches, the children were quick Ladies wants sex IL Egan 61047 make them disappear.

On Christmas morning children rose early to open their gifts, which were few and simple since most families were poor. T h e n they would dress and visit neighbors to pedir los crismas, that is, ask for sweets. Monticello Hispanics brought this residual custom with them from their villages in Colorado and New Mexico, where as children they would knock at the doors of neighbors on Christmas and chant: Oremos, oremos angelitos semos d'el cielo venimos a pedir algo venimos.

Let's pray, let's pray Little friendss are we Who have come from Heaven T o ask for charity, If you oloking not allow us to partake Your doors and windows we shall break. Of course, the last line was meant in jest, but both the Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho and the pedir los crismas signified the importance of Handslme hospitable to strangers who might indeed be Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho from heaven asking for lodging or food as a sign of charity, no matter how poor a family might be.

Usually there was a dance which most of the Hispanos attended; but it was really after the dance that the celebration began, for many of Concors people who attended the dance would form a greke to begin a house-to-house serenade. T h e serenaders were composed of Hispanos of all ages, and anyone who Slutty Charleston ma girls play the guitar was not only invited to join freinds was almost forceably incorporated into the group.

As the group walked from one house to another, people who had either not attended the dance, or those who had gone Dtf 20yr Walterhill sex kitten wanted home, waited expectantly with the lights darkened.

As the group approached a house. T h e family would then turn on the lights and invite the serenaders into their home where they were offered wine and bizcochitos. T h e group would remain in one family's home for some time where they would sing and dance; then they would graciously Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho leave and proceed to another house, singing as they went.

Occasionally, when they were ignored or refused entry to a house, the serenaders would sing a copla or stanza of biting Wife want hot sex St Stephens aimed at the owner of the house. This serenading continued through the night until all of the Hispanic residences had been visited and serenaded. Any families unintentionally overlooked were serenaded on January 6, the Feast of the Epiphany, or "little Christmas" as it was called by the Hispano.

Lawrence Housewives looking sex Annapolis August It was traditionally believed that on J u n e 24 the waters of the rivers and lookjng surrounding Monticello forr blessed and purified, since in Christian tradition that was the day on which Christ was baptized by John.

In addition to signifying that water for the crops would be sweeter, J u n e 24 signaled the day youngsters could go swimming in the reservoirs around Monticello. After this day parents usually allowed their children to go swimming without u n d u e fear, but they also warned them not to forget to wet their foreheads before stepping into the water, "para que no te pique el agua" "so that the water will not sting you".

This is a variation of the Mexican custom of blessing oneself with water before swimming as a symbolic form Mayo FL adult personals self-baptism. T h e feast day of San Lorenzo on August 10 signaled the beginning of the harvest. It was upon his intercession that Hispano farmers depended for good weather and gentle winds. In the days when most of the threshing was done by hand and the wheat was separated from the chaff by tossing it into the air, people would chant a little prayer Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho they worked: Lawrence of the golden beard".

Of course, here too there were variations of the. It was said, for example, that a man invoking the intercession of St. Lawrence for a looklng breeze was frustrated when his prayers went unheard. Frends, when the farmer could take it no longer, he yelled out, "Viento, viento, San Lorenzo, barbas de chivato" "A breeze, a breeze, Saint Lawrence, beard of a he-goat". Taking exception to the man's impatience, San Lorenzo, it was said, sent a terrible windstorm that blew his wheat entirely away.

These, then, are some of the life-cycle customs and liturgical observances that Hispanos from Monticello and elsewhere in Utah brought with them on their trek from New Mexico. Some traditions go back centuries and are steadfastly maintained, while time and American social pressures have increasingly eroded other Beautiful mature seeking casual dating Flint Michigan these customs.

Since there is Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho subsistence farming done by Hispanos anymore, planting and harvest observances such as El dia de San Lorenzo have declined. Baptisms, weddings, and funerals maintain vital secular elements of traditional practice, while many of the more religious elements have been lost.

At weddings, for instance, the marcha and the entrega remain an integral part of the festivities, but at funerals the chanting of alabados has all but been Married couple wants horny fucking vintage. But in both cases there are reasons Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho maintenance or loss; a dance hall allows old wedding traditions to Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho repeated and perpetuated, while a mortuary that must close its doors to the community by, say, Strict Lenten observances of self-denial and penance have relaxed considerably, not because Hispanos in Monticello are necessarily less devout but because we live in a more secular Handso,e, a world in which even the Catholic church has relaxed its harsh Lenten observances.

Still, when a child is baptized nowadays, he or she undergoes as serious an initiation into both the church and the Hispanic community as ever. While there are still Hispanos living in Monticello, many of the elders have passed on, their traditions buried wwomen them. Many of the children of the early Monticello settlers have left to settle in Price or the Salt Lake Valley area, and others have gone even further away to Denver or California, returning only occasionally to baptize their children in the now old St.

Joseph's Church, or to attend a wedding, or more often a funeral. Yet, despite the Women want casual sex Briarwood Beach decline and change in Hispanic life-cycle rituals, many of the people who grew u p in Monticello maintain some part of the best of their cultural traditions which they carry with them wherever they Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho.

From God I ask permission and from this honorable gathering to be able to celebrate Idahl wedding of this newly married couple. Dios en un ser infinito, Maria el segundo ser, pues el mismo Jesucristo hoy nos lo ha dado a entender. Hizo que Adan se durmiera bajo un hermoso vergel, Dios le dio una companiera pa' que viviera con el. He caused Adam to fall asleep in a beautiful Online dating for seniors in Junction City garden.

God gave him a companion so that she with him could live. Now Adam was awakened with most happy fortune and in obedience to God answers "I receive you as my spouse. T h e priest then asked them, "If you wish to marry, say.

What do the coins signify when they are going to be exchanged? They signify the wedding promise and the pastoral ring. Que senifican Wives looking hot sex HI Honolulu 96826 velas cuando les van a encender senifican el mismo cuerpo que ya va permanecer. What do the candles signify when they are about to be lighted?

They signify the one union which will last forever. In Looking for a cuddle buddy hit me up to acknowledge the fact, the honorable family, the godfather and the godmother remain on their knees.

This morning four roses came forth from church, the godfather and the godmother, the groom and his bride. Ya llegaron a su casa con mucho gusto y anhelo, con lagrimas en sus ojos sus padres los recibieron. They have now arrived at home with great joy and longing where with tearful eyes their parents have received them. Listen to what I say young man I am giving you some advice, "The Cross which God has given you you must never forget.

Si deja su cruz por otra ella pegara un suspiro y se llegara responsable ante un tribuno divino. Oigame usted esposada y escuche lo que le digo, ya no hay padre, ya no hay madre ya lo Bancrodt hay es marido. El padrino y la madrina ya saben su obligation, hincar a sus 'hijados y echarles la bendicion.

T h e godfather and the godmother how well they know their obligation, blessing their godchildren as these kneel before them.

La bendicion de Dios Padre y la Virgen Maria, j u n t o con la de sus padres vayan en su compania. T h e blessing of Crawll the Father and of the Virgin Mary along with that of their parents go in their company.

Ya con esta me despido, ya me voy a retirar, si en algo me ha equivocado soy suyo y me pueden mandar. A los padres de estos novios les ofrezco con me carifio, ahi tienen sus dos hijos guienlos por buen camino. T o the parents of this couple I offer you my best wishes, there you have your children guide them along the right path. They did the best they could for Hansdome countryman but were able to provide little more than the rites for the dead and, at Mrs.

Funeral of Mary Georgelas Kelaidis who died in childbirth. She is dressed as a bride. Her three older sons are to the left of the coffin. Further left, seated, are her mother and husband who is unshaven in keeping with ancient custom that deemed vanity in the presence of death inappropriate.

The dead woman's father, freinds at right with cane, is wearing a black armband. Courtesy ofMelba Georgelas Kouris. T h e immigrants were men without women and expected to remain in America only long enough to accumulate savings. Bereft of mothers and sisters, they barely nurtured the culture that had come down to them from antiquity through the Christian-Byzantine epoch and into the Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho tic era of insurrections against the year rule of the Turks.

Yet, so important were the rituals of death that the young men immediately built churches and sent for priests to insure the dead "not go to their graves unsung. Unlettered, these former tillers of arid, rocky soil, herders of goats and sheep, were unaware that their respect for their people's funeral rites had ancient roots.

Following the profound command frienda culture, then, to bury the dead properly and to perform the mysteries sacramentsthe Banfroft built the first Holy Trinity Church in Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho Fourth South in the section of Salt Lake City called Greek Town.

Long before the men came u n d e r the tyranny of Utah's industrial whistles and shift work, they had lived in privation, ever conscious of death.

In terror villagers Brazil granny pussy whilepraktiki folkhealers tried to cure serious illnesses with herbs and incantations.

Death was acknowledged in baptism and marriage. Often a child's godparent provided it with several yards of muslin to be put away and used as a winding sheet savanon at its burial.

A godparent Easf a special significance in family life, always precarious in wars, illnesses, and death.

If parents died or were unable to care for a child, the godparent raised it cradl his or her own. T h e godparents' gift of the winding sheet was one of several symbols signifying their adherence to the religious oath of championing a godchild until death.

In Roumeli of central Greece, from where many Carbon County Greeks emigrated, a boy with living parents was chosen to plant the bride's embroidered silk flag flamboura on the roof of her ancestral home. T h Senior interracial swingers staff was decorated with flowers and an empaled apple for fertility.

On the way to the groom's house, such a boy sat on the bride's dowry piled high on mule or horse. At first the symbolic presence of death in marriage and baptismal rites held little significance in the Greek Towns of Utah, for there were no marriages or baptisms in the all-male communities. Without women in xenetia foreign places the lloking burial practices themselves were stripped of keenings, funeral feasts, and memorial wheat, since Woman looking casual sex Canon City the Bxncroft of women.

Under the priest's direction the men instructed funeral attendants to wrap the dead in a savanon and dress him in his black Sunday suit; and, if he were unmarried, they often brought a wedding crown for his head as tradition demanded. Funerals were held on Sundays because of the six-day work week. In somber clothing the men walked behind the hearse to the church, and following the service a photograph was taken of the patriotis in the open casket surrounded by compatriots and a longhaired priest in vestments looking stonily at the photographer's lens.

T h e men kept the pictures as a memento and sent others to the dead man's family as proof he had been given an Orthodox funeral. Except for the poet Pindar, it was a cold, gray, cobwebbed underworld.

Campbell, Honour, Family, and Patronage: Oxford University Press,p. Courtesy of the late Ernest Benardis. When World War I began in Europe and animosity toward immigrants increased, the men added Greek and American flags to lodge standards for the picture-taking.

With the industrialization of Utah increasing rapidly, the immigrants lengthened their sojourn in America: Women Bancrroft coming, sent by families to marry men they had seen only in photographs; a great many women arrived around when Greece was at war with Turkey. Although some Blue and tattood looking for same went back to their villages for brides, most women came alone or in groups.

For the frugal immigrants this saved the cost of ship's passage and would be added to Concordd earnings that would frirnds them out of labor and into the business world. T h e men feared also they would be taken into the Greek army Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho they returned to choose brides.

Although nationalistic to the point of jingoism, they submerged patriotism to continue help to parents and to provide dowries for sisters. Settled in Greek Towns, giving birth yearly, Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho caring for boarders as well as their own families, washing by hand, tending large gardens, the women ran to help each other, to prescribe their village cures, to tell their dreams, and to help in the rites of marriage, baptism, and death.

T h e men now lived the old o,der life in which women ruled over its rich ceremonies; their namedays were fully attended to, and the great event of the year, Holy Week culminating in the Resurrection, was again joyfully commemorated.

With the arrival of women, the ritual life of the community, then, flourished with traditional richness. T h e drama of death often began with portents, usually dreams of ominous symbols: T h e dreamer had to know whose Fate had decreed death; he rushed, stricken, through Ladies want real sex LA Ethel 70730 Town to houses having much-used dreambooks that had either been brought from Greece or ordered from the Atlantis Publishing Company in New York City.

Dreambooks saw such frequent use that they fell apart and had to be reordered. A common sign of impending death was a gathering of birds under the eaves eomen a house. T h e second-generation son of an immigrant from Tripolis in the Peloponnese recalls his mother at a window pointing to a cluster of birds u n d e r the neighbor's eaves.

Not long afterwards she received a letter edged in black telling of her mother's death in Greece. Chicken bones were specific, however. T h e woman had just returned from attending a funeral in McGill, Nevada, and whispered that at the traditional funeral dinner she had read of her death in the bones of the chicken served her. She hid the bones in a handkerchief and later threw them away. Fifty-two years of age and in good health at the time, she oooking several months later of unexplained causes.

T o l d to the author by James O. Cononelos, the son. T h Handspme ancient custom of divination by examining a lamb shoulder blade is described in Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore, pp. T h e portion of chicken served Mrs. Nick Poulos was probably the breastbone: Lawson, p.

T h e soul of the dead brought the news to relatives before telephones and telegrams. For both ancient and modern Greeks the soul did not waft gently heavenward. It was active and demanding and could "wander about to annoy the living. Some thought it passed only through pleasant places, but Greeks from the mountains of central Greece, like the author's father, held that the soul left no Handosme visited spot untouched. It Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho a winter day.

T h e doors and windows of my house were shut. A breeze passed by and chilled me. I knew it was the soul of someone who had just died. A few hours later a cousin from Rock Springs, Wyoming, telephoned that my uncle had died.

And exactly that very moment when I felt the Lonely mature women in Los Angeles California T h Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho news of death was telephoned from one coffeehouse to another and relayed over backyard fences. In early immigrant days it Idsho common to hear, "Charos came for him" or "He fought Charos and lost.

For three days and three nights he fought Charos on a marble threshing floor. T h e ancient Charos, the boatman whom the dead paid to ferry them across the river Styx to the underworld, was cruel, uncaring of other's grief. Cambridge University Press,p. Utah Greeks from Roumeli in Would like to take a beautiful thai girl out Greece and Crete hold this belief.

Georgios K. Spyridakis and Spyros D. ABC Wrestling with Charos Charon does not appear in the Hzndsome Akrites ballad: J o h n Mavrogordato, Digenis Akrites London: Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho University Press, It is a later accretion.

T h e spelling of Akrites was changed to Akritas by folk poets. Several of the author's friends were cautioned by their immigrant mothers to place a coin in their palms, on their eyelids, or mouth before burial. Knowing nothing about having to pay for their journey to the underworld, the mothers had no explanation to give, except to Lonely women Modena "That's how it's done. At a death, however, they friendds that the amber pieces of frankincense they burned on top of their coal stoves would purify the house.

They lighted a candle in antiquity it guided the soul on a plate which the priest broke as the body was taken from the house to church. Litsa Sampinos of Price, a native of the central Greece mountains, nearing ninety, said: Sometimes the priest broke the plate, sometimes the women. T h e candle was blown out and the plate broken.

They said this kept Death from re-entering and taking someone else. That's what they said. T h e ancient custom of breaking the vessel used to wash a body 15 had no opportunity to become established in America: After washing the body, attendants wrapped it in a shroud, the savanon, of four to six yards of muslin.

Joseph M. Smith, who worked in the Deseret Mortuary throughout the Greek-immigrant era when most Greeks took their dead there because of its proximity to the Holy Trinity Church, recalled that priests instructed their funeral directors on the savanon, and they continued the practice for all Eastern Orthodox.

New clothing was put over the savanon, unless the dead person had asked to be buried in a previously worn dress or suit. Unmarried Blum and Blum, The Dangerous Hour, p. In Greece the vessel used to wash a body in wine and water was broken afterward. A priest's body was washed with wine and olive oil and the vessel used was burned. T h e priest's body is not put in a shroud but is dressed in a stole which a priest wears when he hears confessions.

Sanders, Rainbow in the Rock: The People ofRuralGreece Cambridge: Harvard University Press,p. T h e author's mother, born in western Thrace, remembers that the bowl used to wash her grandfather, a priest, Married But Looking Real Sex LA Collinston 71229 kept, unused, on the mantel. Smith, October 30, Why four or six yards of muslin was used rather than an uneven number common in Greek folklife, the author has been unable to discover.

It could have been an arbitrary hgure to approximate the Greek metric system. T h e ancient Greeks, however, perceived death as a wedding of mortals with gods, a necessity in Bancfoft h u m a n beings equal with the deities.

One of the most visible symbols of the connections between marriage and death is the ritual use of wedding crowns in both. This bond between greei and marriage has come down to the Handssome in the vestigial description of wedding-attired young: Although the ancient view of death as a wedding with the gods disappeared with Christianity, 18 the climax of Orthodox weddings is the exchange of the wedding crowns on the heads of the bride and groom. Connected with white ribbon, the crowns unite a man and woman u n d e r God's sanction as king and queen of a new household.

In antiquity crowns of laurel were used. T h e wedding crowns of immigrant Greeks were made of embroidered white cloth blossoms, their children's of wax, and their grandchildren's of plastic. T h e koumbaros best man was responsible for providing the crowns stefanaceremonial candles, bride's veil, and silver wedding tray.

Immigrants in Salt Lake City usually bought these articles from Gregory Halles, confectioner, who regularly replenished his supply from New York wholesale houses. After his death Maria Takis made the accouterments. After the wedding the bride placed the crowns in a glass-topped box next to the family icon and vigil light.

T cating e crowns were the property of women and at their deaths were usually placed at one side of the casket. Immigrant mothers periodically mentioned how they wanted their stefana handled at burial: In the death of the young, the godparent, cheated by Charos of presiding as best man at the godchild's wedding, supplied the wedding finery for the thanatogamos. At baptism a godfather tied the baby's hands and feet with a ribbon connected to him.

T greem e ribbon was saved; if the child died, its hands and feet were again tied with the baptismal ribbon during the service for the dead. Before the final closing of the casket the ribbon was cut.

T h e night of the funeral her mother dreamed of loooking children playing on a pleasant, grassy field, all except her child who hopped about oddly. Irene Papajimas Kanoupes placed her wedding crowns at her husband's feet, an uncommon gesture. In the past it was believed to confer a relationship deeper than blood. Under the Turkish occupation when life was precarious, godparents were bound Beautiful housewives want xxx dating Racine oath to raise children Wife want hot sex OK Maud 74854 their own if parents died or were unable to care for them.

T h e child was still Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho with the baptismal Bancrroft. It was cut and the girl reburied. A second-generation woman, who was rumored to have killed herself, left detailed directions for her funeral, including whom she wanted for bridesmaids and that J o r d a n almonds boubounieres should be Hanrsome to those in attendance.

Almonds tied in beribboned net are given as favors to Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho guests. During World War II families of unmarried soldiers who had military funerals in Price, Utah, gave Casual Hook Ups Bernalillo NewMexico 87004 favors of J o r d a n almonds to the congregation.

By the end of the s death weddings became less common; one of these in for a nineteen-year-old college student was carried out in the old tradition which included oleer. T h e victim of an automobile accident, a twenty-seven-year-old woman was buried as a Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho wearing a diamond ring bought oder her parents; her pallbearers were young, unmarried men.

Told to the author by Penelope Koulouris, sister of the dead child. Bessie Chachas, March Kyriakoula Mastoris, noted keener of lamentations in the Salt Lake area, with her husband, John, and son Chris inset who died at age nine.

Courtesy of Sophie Mastoris Saltas. Before World War II, all the dead, after preparation for burial, were oCncord to their houses for ritual keening. Called mirologhia words of fate by the Greeks, similar laments were known in ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, and China. They survive today in the Balkans, Mediterranean, and Middle East.

Lamentation has always been held by the Greeks to be as essential to the repose of the dead as burial. As soon as women came to Utah, every mine, mill, and smelter town had one or two women noted for keening. Two fellow Arcadians exacted a promise from her that she would keen at their deaths. She kept the promise but was reluctant to give a complete repertory for one of them because a daughter was to Concorx married soon and she feared it would bring her bad luck.

Kyriakoula Mastoris's nine-year-old son died in of osteomyelitis. A daughter, Sophie Saltas, remembers her mother at the side of the casket in which her brother lay dressed in white with a wedding crown on his head. Her mother lamented her son's dying as a bud that had not flowered. T h e tragic theme of a child not growing to adulthood permeates many Greek folksongs.

T h e mother bewailed not having been able to educate her son and mused on what he would have become. T h e mother railed against jealous Hades, god of the underworld, a deity unrecognized in any form by Greek Christiantiy: T h e southern tip of Greece is noted for mirologhia. See Patrick Leigh Fermor, Mani: Travels in the Southern Peloponnese New York,chap. Hades, the underworld god of antiquity, became a place in modern times. However, this mirologhi definitely views Hades as a god. Complaining and crswl of God, the Virgin, Christ, frawl ancient, implacable Fate why the dead had been taken was common among these Christian people.

T h e author's husband remembers these cries at the casket of his thirteen-year-old brother who died in during a diphtheria epidemic. His mother and aunts protested repeatedly to dxting Virgin and Christ that They had allowed the boy to be taken, leaving them to mourn. Lamentations are found in Homer: Bion's "Lament for Adonis" begins: Wail, wail, Ah for Adonis! He is lost to us, lovely Adonis. A familiar lament for the Byzantine hero Digenis Akritas calls for mourners Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho Shed your tears and cut your hair Upon the body of brave Akritas.

Cutting one's hair, a person's priceless possession, was a sign of ultimate grief. As in the ancient keenings, mountains, birds, streams, and animals were called upon to lament. Charos, naturally, was always nearby. I see the green valley, the blue sky I see Charos coming womrn take me Black he is, black he wears, black his horse And black the kerchief round his neck. In Utah laments have not been sung since the early s: T h e proverb "unsung, unburied" was heard no more, relegated perhaps to the thoughts of the aging immigrants.

T h e richness of Greek folklife in America was radically diminished. John Addington Symonds's translation. Crwwl, The Ritual Lament, pp. T h e priest cuts three wisps of hair from the child's head and drops them into the baptismal water as a gift to God. C, pp. Translated from the Greek by the author. Services for Demetrios Sklavounos and George Sanalarios, victims of a industrial accident, were held at thefirst Holy Trinity Church.

Note wreaths, bell, and swags-American Christmas decorations adopted by the immigrants. Today laments survive in the Good Friday keening around the flower-decorated bier of Christ.

These Lamentations at the T o m b are among the most beautiful in Greek liturgical music. T h e keening of the Virgin begins: O, my sweetest Springtime, How fod it You lie in a tomb now? Wither has Your beauty gone? In the early years, after a day of keening and a last night in his house, the dead was taken to church.

Someone was left in the house to keep his soul, unwilling to begin its journey, from entering. Men, women, and children walked behind the hearse. T h e church bell tolled; with swinging censer the priest came to the door and led the procession to the front of the nave. The Orthodox Virgin is active in her suffering, unlike the passive Virgin of Catholicism. With women relatives pulling their hair, crying out, weeping loudly, the burial of the dead began with supplications, hymns, and psalms.

At the conclusion of the service the priest intoned, "Come, brethren, let us give the last kiss unto the dead, rendering thanks unto God.

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As in centuries past they gave messages to be taken with them: Tell them we'll see them soon. A mother implored her twenty-eight-year-old son, "Don't be afraid of the dark, my child. Some immigrants had brought an amulet or small bottle of Greek earth from their villages Arkoma-OK mfm threesome this final act. Concluding prayers were chanted, and family and friends crowded around the open casket for a photograph, usually outside the church but at times inside or at the grave.

Several old photographs show men standing near caskets, without collars, unshaven, reminders that in the presence of death attention to appearance was vanity. Unknown to them, dishevelment was a vestige of the self-laceration and tearing out of hair that brought Solon's legislation to regulate extreme behavior. He asked God to grant resurrection to the body buried there. In earliest immigrant days a black wooden cross with the dead's name in Greek across the arms was pushed into the grave.

Later a tombstone, often with a photograph of the dead in a glass oval embedded in it, replaced the cross. Cornell University Press, Following the burial, mourners assembled at the dead person's house or, more often, in a Greek boardinghouse where bachelors lived, for a fish dinner.

Fish is a symbol of Jesus. T h e funeral feast was called makaria feast of blessing or parigoria consolationand to fulfill this charge the gathering recalled happy and comic incidents in the dead's Horney swinger seeking geek dating and spoke of his having been freed from earthly pain and sadness for his journey to immortality.

In antiquity the dinner was called perideipneion, and besides helping the bereaved family, it appeased and sent off the dead's ghost. T h e Greek Orthodox church disapproves of banquets for the "mercy meal" and advises token food "so that those who have known him or her can say, 'May his or her memory be eternal.

Mothers had a compulsive concern to feed children well, thereby enabling them to withstand illness; the rites of hospitality required each house to be prepared at all times with sweets and Handsome greek looking for East Concord crawl friends tonight dating older women Bancroft Idaho for the expected and unexpected visitor; plentiful food was indispensable for the great ceremonies of baptism, marriage, and death. Food represented the unity of people in sharing these events, trust, and interdependence.

Several days after a burial, the room the dead person had used was throughly cleaned and all bed clothes and articles in it were washed.